ciao a tutti! sto scrivendo la tesi...avrei bisogno di materiale sull'adolescentza nell'autismo, abilità sociali, asperger e autismo ad alto funzionamento, teacch...
ringrazio già quelli che avranno testi o articoli da suggerirmi!
ciao a tutti! sto scrivendo la tesi...avrei bisogno di materiale sull'adolescentza nell'autismo, abilità sociali, asperger e autismo ad alto funzionamento, teacch...
ringrazio già quelli che avranno testi o articoli da suggerirmi!
Sul Teacch c'è un bellissimo libro della Vannini che si chiama "Verso l'autonomia", anche l'eriksson ha tanti libri interessanti sull'autismo.
il titolo della tesi sarà più o meno "progetto di insegnamento delle abilità sociali ad adolescenti autistici"... più che altro mi serve del materiale sull'adolescenza dei soggetti autisici e con sindrome di asperger
Io ti consiglio di restringere il campo, un conto è insegnare le abilità sociali ad autistici alto funzionamento e asperger un conto ad adole.basso funzionamento non verbali.
Se sai l'inglese un buon sito in cui vedere gli abstract per argomento è Dundarave Resources Inc. - Page - Fri Jan 2, 2009
scusa il link giusto è questo Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
infatti i soggetti della mia ricerca sono autisici ad alto funzionamento ed apserger...ma nell'introduzione teorica mi è stato chiesto di parlare dell'adolescenza nell'autismo e ho trovato ben poco...
Silvia, ti mando una serie di Abstracts che avevo da parte. Gli articoli 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 18, 21 e 26 sono ad accesso libero e te li puoi scaricare; gli altri articoli, se li ritieni utili al tuo lavoro, li devi cercare in biblioteca o richiederli agli autori. Inoltre ti consiglio di digitare su google "sagepub autism" e ti ritroverai direttamente collegata con la rivista "Autism", che è ad accesso libero e gratuito :-)) Poi puoi digitare nel riquadro di ricerca in basso a sinistra la parola "adolescent" e ti arriverà una serie di articoli riguardo autismo/Asperger-adolescenza. Ed ora gli Abstracts e tanti auguri di buon lavoro.
1: Pediatr Clin North Am. 2008 Oct;55(5):1147-57, viii.
Clinical management of adolescents with autism.
Deokar AM, Huff MB, Omar HA.
Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.
Autism spectrum disorder is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders that includes autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. This article provides the reader with an overview of the major psychosocial issues related to adolescents with autism. This discussion is followed by an interjection of medications that may be useful in maximizing the functioning of adolescents with autism.
2: Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008 Oct;17(4):907-22, xi.
Bridging for success in autism: training and collaboration across medical, educational, and community systems.
Swiezy N, Stuart M, Korzekwa P.
Christian Sarkine Autism Treatment Center, HANDS in Autism Program, Riley Hospital for Children and the Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202-5200, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The basis for the need for improved training and collaboration models in the field of autism is supported through historical background and literature in related fields. Ultimately, training specific to autism spectrum disorders and related evidence-based practices is proposed as necessary for all care providers having influence on programming related to this special population. It is also posited that the most effective avenue for training is through models incorporating more intensive and interactive training processes such as hands-on learning activities with opportunities for coaching, modeling, practice and feedback. Effective collaboration across systems (including home, medical, educational, and community settings) is emphasized to facilitate consistency in implementation of strategies for ultimate program success.
3: Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008 Oct;17(4):887-905, x-xi.
Assessment and behavioral treatment of feeding and sleeping disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders.
Kodak T, Piazza CC.
Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985450 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5450, USA. email@example.com
Children diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are more likely than other children to exhibit behaviors characteristic of a feeding or sleeping disorder. Parents of children with these disorders may be extremely concerned about the health and safety of their child. Sleeping and feeding problems can cause a great deal of stress to parents and other family members. Behavioral assessment and treatment procedures have been developed to address behavior problems related to sleeping and feeding disorders. This article reviews the literature about assessment and treatment, and provides recommendations regarding services to family members of individuals diagnosed with ASD and feeding or sleeping disorders.
4: Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008 Oct;17(4):835-56, ix-x.
Interventions to improve communication in autism.
Yale Child Study Center, 40 Temple Street #68, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
Children with autism benefit from intensive, early intervention that focuses on increasing the frequency, form, and function of communicative acts. Available evidence shows that highly structured behavioral methods have important positive consequences for these children, particularly in eliciting first words. However, the limitation of these methods in maintenance and generalization of skills suggests that many children with autism will need to have these methods supplemented with less adult-directed activities to increase communicative initiation and carry over learned skills to new settings and communication partners. Providing opportunities for mediated peer interactions with trained peers in natural settings seems to be especially important in maximizing the effects of this intervention.
5: Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008 Oct;17(4):821-34, ix.
Applied behavior analysis treatment of autism: the state of the art.
Psychology Program, Penn State University Harrisburg, 777 West Harrisburg Pike, Middletown, PA 17057, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The treatment of individuals with autism is associated with fad, controversial, unsupported, disproven, and unvalidated treatments. Eclecticism is not the best approach for treating and educating children and adolescents who have autism. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) uses methods derived from scientifically established principles of behavior and incorporates all of the factors identified by the US National Research Council as characteristic of effective interventions in educational and treatment programs for children who have autism. ABA is a primary method of treating aberrant behavior in individuals who have autism. The only interventions that have been shown to produce comprehensive, lasting results in autism have been based on the principles of ABA.
6: Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008 Oct;17(4):803-20, ix.
Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for children with autism
Levy SE, Hyman SL.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3405 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. email@example.com
Complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments are commonly used for children with autism spectrum disorders. This review discusses the evidence supporting the most frequently used treatments, including categories of mind-body medicine, energy medicine, and biologically based, manipulative, and body-based practices, with the latter two treatments the most commonly selected by families. Clinical providers need to understand the evidence for efficacy (or lack thereof)and potential side effects. Some CAM practices have evidence to reject their use, such as secretin, whereas others have emerging evidence to support their use, such as melatonin. Most treatments have not been adequately studied and do not have evidence to support their use.
7: Rev Neurol (Paris). 2008 May;164(5):406-13. Epub 2008 Apr 15.
[Asperger syndrome: evolution of the concept and current clinical data]
[Article in French]
Aussilloux C, Baghdadli A.
Service de médecine psychologique pour enfants et adolescents Peyre Plantade, CHU de Montpellier, 291, avenue du Doyen-Gaston-Giraud, 34295 Montpellier cedex 5, France. firstname.lastname@example.org
Although Asperger syndrome is described by international classifications as a category of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), its validity as a specific entity distinct from autistic disorders remains controversial. The syndrome, first described by Hans Asperger, could not be distinguished from high functioning autism (onset, symptoms, outcome...). However, international classifications propose a distinction between the two syndromes based on a delayed onset, the absence of speech delay, the presence of motor disorders and a better outcome in Asperger syndrome. This categorical differentiation is not confirmed by current studies and in the absence of biological markers, no clinical, neuropsychological or epidemiological criteria makes it possible to distinguish high functioning autism from Asperger syndrome. From a clinical perspective, it is nevertheless of interest to isolate Asperger syndrome from other autistic disorders to propose specific assessment and therapy.
8: Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2008 Jun;11(1-2):59-73.
Assessing child and adolescent pragmatic language competencies: toward evidence-based assessments.
Russell RL, Grizzle KL.
Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, P.O. Box 26509, Milwaukee, WI 53226-0509, USA. email@example.com
Using language appropriately and effectively in social contexts requires pragmatic language competencies (PLCs). Increasingly, deficits in PLCs are linked to child and adolescent disorders, including autism spectrum, externalizing, and internalizing disorders. As the role of PLCs expands in diagnosis and treatment of developmental psychopathology, psychologists and educators will need to appraise and select clinical and research PLC instruments for use in assessments and/or studies. To assist in this appraisal, 24 PLC instruments, containing 1,082 items, are assessed by addressing four questions: (1) Can PLC domains targeted by assessment items be reliably identified?, (2) What are the core PLC domains that emerge across the 24 instruments?, (3) Do PLC questionnaires and tests assess similar PLC domains?, and (4) Do the instruments achieve content, structural, diagnostic, and ecological validity? Results indicate that test and questionnaire items can be reliably categorized into PLC domains, that PLC domains featured in questionnaires and tests significantly differ, and that PLC instruments need empirical confirmation of their dimensional structure, content validity across all developmental age bands, and ecological validity. Progress in building a better evidence base for PLC assessments should be a priority in future research.
9: J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2008 Feb;21(1):48-56.
Narrative therapy: a psychotherapeutic approach in the treatment of adolescents with Asperger's disorder.
The University of Technology Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
TOPIC: The conundrum of how to carry out psychotherapy with an adolescent whose primary currency of information exchange is visual as opposed to linguistic, and who is unable to develop a unified base of knowledge and hence generalize concepts, has confronted many mental health nurses in their encounters with individuals with Asperger's disorder. At the currently estimated escalating rate of occurrence of 1 to every 100 individuals having an autism spectrum disorder, and the estimate that 80% of these people have average or above intelligence, it makes sense that Asperger's disorder is frequently encountered by child and adolescent mental health nurses. Asperger's disorder represents a different way of being in the world that is associated with a higher frequency of anxiety disorders and depression than experienced by neurotypical counterparts. The inherent concretization in the externalization techniques in narrative therapy provide a novelly successful approach to psychotherapy with people with Asperger's disorder and in many cases resolution of the conundrum. PURPOSE: This paper considers the features of Asperger's disorder and its consonance with the
techniques of narrative therapy, and utilizes a case example that shows the potential efficacy of the application of this established approach in a new context. SOURCES: Contemporary literature on autism and narrative therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The implication of the potential application of narrative therapy in psychotherapy with individuals with autism is raised.
10: Autism. 2007 Nov;11(6):547-56.
Mathematical ability of students with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism: a review of literature.
Chiang HM, Lin YH.
Australian Centre for Educational Studies, Macquarie University, Australia.
This article reviews studies investigating cognitive ability and academic achievement of students with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Particular emphasis is placed on the mathematical ability of people with AS/HFA. A preliminary analysis of empirical data is presented. Findings indicate that: (1) the majority of individuals with AS/HFA have average mathematical
ability; (2) the majority of individuals with AS/HFA have a significant but clinically modest math weakness; (3) some individuals with AS/HFA have mathematical giftedness.
11: Autism. 2007 Jul;11(4)35-48.
Systematic review of the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.
Broadstock M, Doughty C, Eggleston M.
NZHTA, University of Otago, New Zealand. email@example.com
The variable expression of autism over the lifespan is likely to lead to different symptoms and support requirements, and to distinct responses to pharmacotherapy treatment, in older patients compared to children. This systematic review considers the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment in
managing autism spectrum disorder in adolescents and adults. Following a comprehensive search of literature published in English from 1980, methodological criteria were applied to identify studies designed to reliably assess treatment effectiveness. Only five double-blind, randomized controlled trials were eligible for appraisal. All had small sample sizes (mean = 30) and brief treatment
duration of no more than 12 weeks. The paucity of trials and their methodological limitations means that there is only preliminary evidence about the short-term effectiveness of a few drug treatments for this age group. There was also a lack of reliable data reported on drug safety profiles. Methodological challenges and directions for future research are discussed.
12: J Autism Dev Disord. 2007 Nov;37(10):1858-68. Epub 2006 Dec 29.
Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: a review of the intervention research.
Williams White S, Keonig K, Scahill L.
School of Medicine, Virginia Treatment Center for Children, Virginia Commonwealth University, 515 North 10th Street, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Social reciprocity deficits are a core feature of the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This review summarizes the state of research in group-based social skills training programs for school-age children and adolescents with ASD. All published studies of group social skills interventions between 1985 and 2006 were reviewed, as well as dissertations examining group-based social skills intervention programs. To assess the state of the science, a template developed by an NIMH
work group was applied to 14 identified studies. Based on this review, the empirical support for this approach is incomplete, but promising intervention strategies were identified. Recommendations for the design of future treatment trials to guide clinical practice are offered.
13: Child Care Health Dev. 2006 Sep;32(5):535-42.
Music therapy in the assessment and treatment of autistic spectrum disorder: clinical application and research evidence.
Wigram T, Gold C.
Faculty of Humanities, Institut for Musik og Musikterapi, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) presenting with significant limitations in conventional forms of verbal and non-verbal communication are found to respond positively to music therapy intervention involving both active, improvizational methods and receptive music therapy approaches. Improvizational musical activity with therapeutic objectives
and outcomes has been found to facilitate motivation, communication skills and social interaction, as well as sustaining and developing attention. The structure and predictability found in music assist in reciprocal interaction, from which tolerance, flexibility and social engagement to build relationships emerge, relying on a systematic approach to promote appropriate and meaningful interpersonal responses. RESULTS: Published reports of the value and effectiveness of music therapy as an intervention for children with ASD range from controlled studies to clinical case reports. Further documentation has emphasized the role music therapy plays in diagnostic and clinical assessment.
Music therapy assessment can identify limitations and weaknesses in children, as well as strengths and potentials. Research evidence from a systematic review found two randomized controlled trials that examined short-term effects of structured music therapy intervention. Significant effects were found in these studies even with extremely small samples, and the findings are important because
they demonstrate the potential of the medium of music for autistic children. Case series studies were identified that examined the effects of improvizational music therapy where communicative behaviour, language development, emotional responsiveness, attention span and behavioural control improved over the course of an intervention of improvizational music therapy.
14: Arch Dis Child. 2006 Dec;91(12):1018-22. Epub 2006 Aug 3.
Auditory integration training and other sound therapies for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.
Sinha Y, Silove N, Wheeler D, Williams K.
Child Development Unit, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of auditory integration training (AIT) or other methods of sound therapy in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review was carried out of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults or children with ASD. Meta-analysis was attempted. RESULTS: Six RCTs of AIT, including one crossover trial, were identified, with a total of 171 participants aged 3-39 years. 17 different outcome measures were used, with only two outcome measures used by three or more studies. Meta-analysis was not possible owing to very high heterogeneity or presentation of data in unusable forms. Three studies did not show any benefit of AIT over control conditions. Three studies reported improvements at 3 months in the AIT group for total mean scores of the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist (ABC), which is of questionable validity. Of these, one study also reported improvements at 3 months in the AIT group for ABC subgroup scores. No significant adverse effects of AIT were reported. CONCLUSION: At present there is not sufficient evidence to support its use.
15: Int Rev Neurobiol. 2006;72:181-93.
Current trends in behavioral interventions for children with autism.
Scattone D, Knight KR.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Development and Behavioral Medicine The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi 39216, USA.
This chapter focuses on behavioral interventions involving skill acquisition for children and adolescents with autism over the last 12 years. Literature and outcome data are reviewed with respect to three categories: language, social skills, and self-management. Generalization of results is somewhat problematic, as all of the interventions discussed consist of relatively small sample sizes and utilize single case design methodology. However, expansion and refinement of research methodology over the last decade, with more researchers replicating previous studies, may make broader application of research findings possible.
16: Pediatr Rehabil. 2005 Apr-Jun;8(2):104-12.
Managing autism and Asperger's syndrome in current educational provision.
School of Education, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. email@example.com
There is a need to understand the difficulties faced by those with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in educational settings if one is to manage and help them manage their learning. This paper explores some of the most pertinent problems that arise. It analyses perceptual, social, conceptual, emotional and memorizing barriers to learning and shows how difficulties in communication are exacerbated by educational language, which gives a poor model for those who have no prior understanding of inter-personal communication. The notion of an 'autism-friendly' environment is examined as is the process of how schools and other learning institutions might be helped to create such an environment.
Education as entitlement is distinguished from education as therapy and the implications for inclusion are examined. It is argued that the best teaching arises from an empathetic understanding and a willingness to be flexible, the worst, from rigidity and an expectation that it is the child who must change. There is no single approach that can meet all the needs of those with ASDs, but nor are needs entirely determined by individual behaviour. It is the understanding of ASD that enables the teacher to correctly identify the child's learning needs and begin to meet them.
17: J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2005 Sep;34(3):523-40.
Evidence-based assessment of autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents.
Ozonoff S, Goodlin-Jones BL, Solomon M.
M.I.N.D. Institute, University of California Medical Center, Sacramento 95817, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
This article reviews evidence-based criteria that can guide practitioners in the selection, use, and interpretation of assessment tools for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). As Mash and Hunsley (2005) discuss in this special section, evidence-based assessment tools not only demonstrate adequate psychometric qualities, but also have relevance to the delivery of services to individuals with the disorder (see also Hayes, Nelson, & Jarrett, 1987). Thus, we use what is known about the symptoms, etiologies, developmental course, and outcome of ASD to evaluate the utility of particular assessment strategies and instruments for diagnosis, treatment planning and monitoring, and evaluation of outcome. The article begins with a review of relevant research on ASD. Next we provide an overview of the assessment process and some important issues that must be considered. We then describe the components of a core (minimum) assessment battery, followed by additional domains that might be considered in a more comprehensive assessment. Domains covered include core autism symptomatology, intelligence, language, adaptive behavior, neuropsychological functions, comorbid
psychiatric illnesses, and contextual factors (e.g., parent well-being, family functioning, quality of life). We end with a discussion of how well the extant literature meets criteria for evidence-based assessments.
18: Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005 Jul;47(7):493-9.
Autism interventions: a critical update.
Oxford University, University Section of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Park Hospital for Children, Old Road, Headington, Oxford O 7LQ, UK. email@example.com
As yet, there is no aetiology-based intervention for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD); despite this, parents and professionals still need to make informed decisions regarding treatment options for children with ASD. This paper seeks to evaluate widely used interventions according to specific research criteria. Interventions presented are grouped into psychoeducational/behavioural
approaches, psychopharmacological interventions, and the less traditional or complementary approaches. The conclusions are less than favourable: while some interventions do have empirical support, others have been proven to have no positive effects, and furthermore, there are no robust data favouring one approach over the others. Nevertheless, several criteria for choosing between
treatment options are briefly discussed.
19: Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2004;10(4):234-47.
Trajectory of development in adolescents and adults with autism.
Seltzer MM, Shattuck P, Abbeduto L, Greenberg JS.
Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. mseltzer@Waisman.Wisc.Edu
This article seeks to elucidate the trajectory of development in adolescents and adults with autism. Prospective, retrospective, and cross-sectional studies are reviewed to reveal the manifestation of and changes in the core symptoms of autism in adolescence and adulthood. Comparing children with adolescents and adults, modest degrees of symptom abatement and improvement in skills have been
documented in multiple studies, as are increases in verbal and decreases in performance IQ. Nevertheless, most individuals do not attain normative outcomes in adulthood and continue to manifest significant degrees of symptomatology and dependency. However, a small sub-group (about 15%) has more favorable adult outcomes.
20: J Neural Transm. 2004 Jul;111(7):891-902.
Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders in adults with childhood onset AD/HD and/or autism spectrum disorders.
Stahlberg O, Soderstrom H, Rastam M, Gillberg C.
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Göteborg University, Sweden.
Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Exclusion criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) impede the use of categorical diagnoses to describe the particular problem constellation in a patient. In this study, we describe the prevalence and patterns of comorbid bipolar and psychotic disorders in 241 consecutively referred adult patients with AD/HD and/or ASD. Thirty per cent of patients with AD/HD had comorbid ASD and 38% of patients with ASD had comorbid AD/HD. Of the subjects with ASD, 7% had bipolar disorder with psychotic features,
and 7.8% had schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder. The corresponding figures for the patients with AD/HD were 5.0% and 5.0%, respectively. Current diagnostic criteria have to be revised to acknowledge the comorbidity of bipolar and/or psychotic disorders in AD/HD and ASD.
21: J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004 May;45(4):672-86.
Emanuel Miller lecture: confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome.
UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Hans Asperger drew attention to individuals who show the core symptoms of autism in the presence of high verbal intelligence. METHODS: A review of the literature explores current issues concerning the diagnosis and nature of Asperger syndrome. RESULTS: The behavioural and neurophysiological evidence to date suggests that Asperger syndrome is a variant of autism typically occurring in high-functioning individuals, and not a separate disorder. One of the problems of diagnosis is that the typical impairment of social communication may be difficult to identify in early childhood, and can be camouflaged in adulthood by compensatory learning. The range and nature of the social impairments in Asperger syndrome are still in need of investigation, but appear to be less severe than in autism. Experimental evidence suggests that individuals with Asperger syndrome
may lack an intuitive theory of mind (mentalising), but may be able to acquire an explicit theory of mind. Brain imaging studies pinpoint a network that links medial prefrontal and temporal cortex as the neural substrate of intuitive mentalising. This network shows reduced activation and poor connectivity in Asperger syndrome. While some individuals with Asperger syndrome have written eloquently about their lives, their ability to talk about their own emotions appears to be impaired (alexithymia). This impairment may be linked to depression and anxiety, which is common in adulthood. Little is as yet known about the often considerable cognitive strengths in Asperger syndrome, or about the difficulties
observed in higher-level executive skills. CONCLUSIONS: Studies are needed that define the developmental course of the disorder and the nature of the strengths and weaknesses in both social and non-social domains. This requires more sensitive assessment instruments than are currently available. Questions about the prevalence of Asperger syndrome, about associated and secondary features, and about optimal education and management, urgently call for such studies.
22: Brain Res Bull. 2003 Oct 15;61(6):557-69.
Brain anatomy and development in autism: review of structural MRI studies.
Brambilla P, Hardan A, di Nemi SU, Perez J, Soares JC, Barale F.
Biological Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS S Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Fatebenefratelli, via Pilastroni 4, 25125 Brescia, Italy. email@example.com
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that severely disrupts social and cognitive functions. MRI is the method of choice for in vivo and non-invasively investigating human brain morphology in children and adolescents. The authors reviewed structural MRI studies that investigated structural brain anatomy and development in autistic patients. All original MRI research papers involving autistic patients, published from 1966 to May 2003, were reviewed in order to elucidate brain anatomy and development of autism and rated for completeness using a 12-item check-list. Increased total brain, parieto-temporal lobe, and cerebellar hemisphere volumes were the most replicated abnormalities in autism. Interestingly, recent findings suggested that the size of amygdala, hippocampus, and corpus callosum may also be abnormal. It is conceivable that abnormalities in neural network involving fronto-temporo-parietal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum may underlie the pathophysiology of autism, and that such changes could result from abnormal brain development during early life. Nonetheless,
available MRI studies were often conflicting and could have been limited by methodological issues. Future MRI investigations should include well-characterized groups of autistic and matched healthy individuals, while taking into consideration confounding factors such as IQ, and socioeconomic status.
23: J Autism Dev Disord. 2003 Feb;33(1)-13.
Outcome in high-functioning adults with autism with and without early language delays: implications for the differentiation between autism and Asperger syndrome.
Department of Psychology, St. George's Hospital Medical School, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 ORE, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
The question of whether Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism should be considered as the same or different conditions has been a source of debate and controversy over recent years. In the present study, 34 adults with autism who had shown early delays in language were compared with 42 individuals who were reported to have had no such delays, either in their use of words or phrases. All
participants were at least 18 years of age, had a nonverbal IQ of 70 or above and met ADI-R criteria for age of onset, communication and social impairments, and stereotyped behaviors. Those in the language delay group were diagnosed as having high-functioning autism. The remainder were designated as having Asperger syndrome. The groups were matched for age, nonverbal IQ and gender. No significant differences were found between the groups either in their total ADI-R algorithm scores, or in their algorithm scores on individual domains. Social outcome ratings and ADI-R scores based on current functioning also failed to differentiate between the groups. Scores on tests of language comprehension and expression were also similar, but in both groups language abilities were well below chronological age level. The implications of these results with respect to the differences between Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism are discussed. The poor performance on language tests also challenges the assumption that early language development in Asperger syndrome is essentially normal.
24: Pediatr Nurs. 2002 Nov-Dec;28(6):555-62.
Caring for children and adolescents with autism who require challenging procedures.
Souders MC, Freeman KG, DePaul D, Levy SE.
Regional Autism Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Providing nursing care for children with autism or autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) can be challenging. As part of a larger study of 62 children with autism ages 3-8 years (Coplan et al., 2001; Levy et al., 2001) that required difficult procedures, strategies were developed for providing care that incorporated theories and knowledge from the disciplines of nursing, child development, psychology, applied behavior analysis, and pain management. Applications of these strategies are illustrated through the process of a physical exam, phlebotomy, and intravenous (IV) insertion during a health care visit. The nurse can develop a plan of care to achieve the goals of the visit and optimize the quality of the care for the child and family. Interventions presented can be individualized to each child.
25: J Autism Dev Disord. 2002 Oct;32(5)97-422.
Efficacy of sensory and motor interventions for children with autism.
The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, Room 111, Medical School, Wing E-CB #7120, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7120, USA. email@example.com
Idiosyncratic responses to sensory stimuli and unusual motor patterns have been reported clinically in young children with autism. The etiology of these behavioral features is the subject of much speculation. Myriad sensory- and motor-based interventions have evolved for use with children with autism to address such issues; however, much controversy exists about the efficacy of such therapies. This review paper summarizes the sensory and motor difficulties often manifested in autism, and evaluates the scientific basis of various sensory and motor interventions used with this population. Implications for education and further research are described.
26: Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002 Dec;36(6):762-70.
A clinical and neurobehavioural review of high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.
Rinehart NJ, Bradshaw JL, Brereton AV, Tonge BJ.
School of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Psychological Medicine, Monash University, Victoria, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To compare, contrast and review clinical and neuropsychological studies of high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. METHOD: This paper reviews past and contemporary conceptualizations of autism and Asperger's disorder, together with epidemiological information, genetic and neurobehavioural findings. This paper focuses on neurobehavioural studies, in particular,
executive functioning, lateralization, visual-perceptual and motor processing, which have provided an important source of information about the potential neurobiological dissociation that may exist between autism and Asperger's disorder. RESULTS: The clinical profiles of autism and Asperger's disorder
contain a mixture of psychiatric and neurological symptoms: for example, movement abnormalities (i.e. stereotyped behaviours, hand flapping, toe walking, whole-body movements), atypical processing of parts and wholes, verbal and non-verbal deficits, ritualistic/compulsive behaviour, disturbances in reciprocal social interaction and associated depression and anxiety. The considerable clinical overlap between autism and Asperger's disorder has led many to question whether Asperger's disorder is merely a mild form of autism, or whether it should be considered as a separate clinical entity. CONCLUSION: In light of the growing body of epidemiological information, genetic, and neurobehavioural evidence that distinguishes autism from Asperger's disorder, it is premature to rule out the possibility that these disorders may be clinically, and possibly neurobiologically separate.
grazie mille...sono quasi alla fine, ma ho trovato poco sull'adolescenza nell'autismo e sulle definizioni di abilità sociali...qualcuno può darmi una mano?
ciao anke io sto facendo la tesi sull' adolescenza nella sindrome di asperger...e mi trovo mlt in difficoltà nel trovare libri....qlk può darmi una mano?
ciao! io ho acquistato i 3 volumi di Volkmar ( ed. vannini) una parte sull'adolescenza ed una sul disturbo asperger c'è in 2 dei 3 volumi: AUTISMO E DISTURBI PERVASIVI DELLO SVILUPPO Diagnosi,sviluppo, neurobiologia e comportamento (vol. III) e DISTURBI GENERALIZZATI DELLO SVILUPPO Diagnosi e assesment