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Discussione: Tat

  1. #1
    Partecipante L'avatar di joli1983
    Data registrazione
    19-12-2005
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    Tat

    Ciao a tutti,

    ho seguito diversi corsi sul TAT, con differenti orientamenti, e ho poi cercato di integrare le info a mia disposizione su questo test molto discusso (data l'assenza di un'univoca siglatura, modalità di interpretazione, ecc.)

    Ora mi trovo a cercare tra colleghi un confronto su un aspetto riguardante la somministrazione e ho pensato che questo fosse il posto giusto per scambiarsi qualche informazione

    Ci sono indirizzi che suggeriscono di dare la consegna e poi lasciare che la persona faccia il test senza più alcun intervento da parte del testista...
    Ci sono indirizzi che suggeriscono per le prime 2/3 tavole di chiedere come va a finire la storia per poi lasciare che la persona "se la cavi" nella restante parte del test...
    Ci sono indirizzi che suggeriscono di chiedere info cmq sulle parti mancanti (antecedente, fine, emozioni personaggi, ecc?) ...

    Il confronto verteva sul possibile intervento, quindi, del testista, sui rischi di inficiare il processo proiettivo della persona che si sottopone al test, sulla possibilità di raccogliere maggiori informazioni, ecc.

    Aspetto qualche vostro commento per entrare maggiormente nel confronto
    Un grazie in anticipo a chi vorrà partecipare ;-)

    Ciao
    Elena

  2. #2
    Partecipante Veramente Figo L'avatar di GIUNONE
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    Riferimento: Tat

    Ciao, Elena. L'utilità e la validità dei test proiettivi si riscontra proprio nel grado di libertà interpretativa, e quindi proiettiva, che uno stimolo ambiguo consente di elicitare. I diversi orientamenti che hai studiato osservano comunque questo leitmotiv adottando però una "lente di ingrandimento", ovvero andando ad individuare e canalizzare l'attenzione dell'utente su un determinato aspetto dello stimolo presentato, ma lasciando comunque all'utentestesso l'aspetto interpretativo. Si tratta in effetti di un "intervento" da parte dell'operatore, come a dare un primo abbozzo di "forma". La validità non ne viene inficiata, vari studi in merito lo confermano. E' interessante verificare come i diversi orientamenti inerenti la formulazione delle consegne possano far emergere contenuti di diverso tipo (su diversi aspetti psichici) propriamente funzionali rispetto agli specifici scopi per i quali il test è stato somministrato
    Ultima modifica di GIUNONE : 08-11-2012 alle ore 18.41.43

  3. #3
    Partecipante L'avatar di joli1983
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    Riferimento: Tat

    Citazione Originalmente inviato da GIUNONE Visualizza messaggio
    Ciao, Elena. L'utilità e la validità dei test proiettivi si riscontra proprio nel grado di libertà interpretativa, e quindi proiettiva, che uno stimolo ambiguo consente di elicitare. I diversi orientamenti che hai studiato osservano comunque questo leitmotiv adottando però una "lente di ingrandimento", ovvero andando ad individuare e canalizzare l'attenzione dell'utente su un determinato aspetto dello stimolo presentato, ma lasciando comunque all'utentestesso l'aspetto interpretativo. Si tratta in effetti di un "intervento" da parte dell'operatore, come a dare un primo abbozzo di "forma". La validità non ne viene inficiata, vari studi in merito lo confermano. E' interessante verificare come i diversi orientamenti inerenti la formulazione delle consegne possano far emergere contenuti di diverso tipo (su diversi aspetti psichici) propriamente funzionali rispetto agli specifici scopi per i quali il test è stato somministrato
    Grazie mille per la risposta. Sei stata molto chiara. Penso anche io che "intervento" non voglia dire automaticamente infiaciare il test. Mi piacerebbe comunque documentarmi meglio per poter scegliere meglio quale metodologia usare e in quali casi e per potermi confrontare con altri colleghi.
    Posso chiederti se per caso hai qualche riferimento bibliografico in merito agli studi a cui hai accennato? In particolare mi piacerebbe trovare qualche informazione in relazione ai diversi ambiti di applicazione (psicoterapia, ambito giuridico, ecc..)
    Elena

  4. #4
    Partecipante Veramente Figo L'avatar di GIUNONE
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    Riferimento: Tat

    I baluardi della ricerca sul Tat restano i lavori di Allison e Karon (Allison, 1988 “The Interpretation of Psychological tests”; Karon, 1981, “The Thematic Apperception Test”) che hanno indagato i cambiamenti apportati nel corso degli anni nella somministrazione, codifica ed interpretazione del test, e quindi le ricadute sulla sua attendibilità e sulla sua validità. Allison in particolare riporta esempi clinici di validità. Gli autori concordano nel non poter considerare per il Tat, come per i proiettivi in generale, un approccio eccessivamente rigoroso del concetto di attendibilità. Karon inoltre sottolinea come sia basilare l‘abilità specifica e la formazione del codificatore, in quanto lo strumento non è solo il test, ma il test più colui che lo interpreta.
    Studi più recenti che focalizzano la validità clinica del Tat sono numerosi e spaziano rispetto agli ambiti di applicabilità, ad es.:
    - - A Practical Guide to the Thematic Apperception Test: The Tat in Clinical Practice di Edward, Aronow, Kim Altman Weiss, Marvin Reznikoff, 2001;

    - The Assessment of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale on TAT and Interview Data Inslegers, Ruth; Vanheule, Stijn; Meganck, Reitske; Debaere, Virginie; Trenson, Eline; Desmet, Mattias; Roelstraete, Bjorn. Journal of Personality Assessment. Jul/Aug2012, Vol. 94 Issue 4, p372-379. 8p. 2 Diagrams, 3 Charts.
    - Object relations in adolescence: A comparison of normal and inpatient adolescents. By: Sekiya, Hideko; Sato, Atsushi; Sakai, Yoshie; Naka, Yasushi; Suzuki, Keiko; Kashima, Haruo; Mimura, Masaru. Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences. Jun2012, Vol. 66 Issue 4, p270-275. 6p. 2 Charts
    - Defense and Object Relational Maturity on Thematic Apperception Test Scales Indicate Levels of Personality Organization. By: HIBBARD, STEPHEN; PORCERELLI, JOHN; KAMOO, RAY; SCHWARTZ, MARK; ABELL, STEVEN. Journal of Personality Assessment. May/Jun2010, Vol. 92 Issue 3, p241-253. 13p. 10 Charts.
    - Paul Lerner and the Heart of Assessment: A Tale of Three Relations. By: Husain, Odile. Journal of Personality Assessment. Jan/Feb2009, Vol. 91 Issue 1, p30-34. 5p
    - When children tell stories: Developmental considerations. By: Graves, Pirkko L. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. Winter2008, Vol. 72 Issue 1, p19-37. 19p.
    dependent personality traits and information processing: Assessing the interpretation of ambiguous information using the Thematic Apperception Test. By: Weertman, Anoek; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik; Dreessen, Laura. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. Jun2006, Vol. 45 Issue 2, p273-278
    - Guilt and Shame in Japan: Data Provided by the Thematic Apperception Test in Experimental Settings. By: Thonney, Jaime; Kanachi, Michihiko; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hatayama, Toshiteru. North American Journal of Psychology. 2006, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p85-98. 14p.
    - -Personality and Symptom Change in Treatment-Refractory Inpatients: Evaluationof the Phase Model of Change Using Rorschach,TAT, and DSM-IV Axis V. By: Fowler, J. Christopher; Ackerman, Steven J.; Speanburg, Stefanie; Bailey, Adrian; Blagys, Matthew; Conklin, Adam C. Journal of Personality Assessment. Dec2004, Vol. 83 Issue 3, p306-322. 17p. 10 Charts
    - Monitoring Psychotherapy With Performance-Based Measures of Personality Functioning. By: Weiner, Irving B. Journal of Personality Assessment. Dec2004, Vol. 83 Issue 3, p323-331. 9p
    - Defense Mechanisms and Physiological Reactivity to Stress. By: Cramer, Phebe. Journal of Personality. Apr2003, Vol. 71 Issue 2, p221-244. 24p. 3 Charts
    - Origin and History of the Earliest Thematic Apperception Test Pictures. By: Morgan, Wesley G. Journal of Personality Assessment. Dec2002, Vol. 79 Issue 3, p422-445. 24p.
    - Internal Consistency of the Object Relations and Social Cognition Scales for the Thematic Apperception Test. By: Hibbard, Stephen; Mitchell, Deborah; Porcerelli, John. Journal of Personality Assessment. Dec2001, Vol. 77 Issue 3, p408-419. 12p. 3 Charts
    - Convergent Validity of Rorschach and TAT Scales of Object Relations. By: Ackerman, Steven J.; Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Clemence, Amanda J.; Weatherill, Robin; Fowler, J. Christopher. Journal of Personality Assessment. Oct2001, Vol. 77 Issue 2, p295-306. 12p. 2 Charts
    - Assessment of Implicit Motives With a Research Version of the TAT: Picture Profiles, Gender Differences, and Relations to Other Personality Measures. By: Schultheiss, Oliver C.; Brunstein, Joachim C. Journal of Personality Assessment. Aug2001, Vol. 77 Issue 1, p71-86. 16p. 3 Charts
    - Object Relations and Defense Mechanisms of a Psychopathic Serial Sexual Homicide Perpetrator: A TAT Analysis. By: Porcerelli, John H.; Abramsky, Michael F.; Hibbard, Stephen; Kamoo, Ray. Journal of Personality Assessment. Aug2001, Vol. 77 Issue 1, p87-104. 18p. 2 Charts.
    - A New Empirical Method for Assessing Human Attachment Relationship Quality. By: Cawthorpe, David. CyberPsychology & Behavior. Dec2000..

  5. #5
    Partecipante L'avatar di joli1983
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    Riferimento: Tat

    grazie mille di nuovo per tutte queste informazioni
    Elena

  6. #6
    Postatore OGM L'avatar di willy61
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    Riferimento: Tat

    Aggiungo qualche articolo sull'utilizzo del TAT:

    Convergent Validity of the Defense Mechanisms Manual and the Defensive Functioning Scale.
    By: PORCERELLI, JOHN H.; COGAN, ROSEMARY; KAMOO, RAY; MILLER, KRISTEN. Journal of Personality Assessment. Sep/Oct2010, Vol. 92 Issue 5, p432-438. 7p. 4 Charts. Abstract: We examined the convergent validity of Cramer's Defense Mechanisms Manual (DMM; Cramer, 1991b) by comparing it to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS). A total of 60 low income urban women from a primary care medical facility responded to four Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) cards and an interview of early memories and descriptions of significant others. We scored the TAT narratives with the DMM, and we coded the interview narratives with the DFS. DMM Denial and Projection scales were negatively correlated with the DFS Overall Defensive Functioning scale (r= -.28, p< .01 and r= -.22, p< .10, respectively) and were positively correlated with a DFS pathological composite score (r= .36, p< .01 and r= .32, p< .05, respectively). These findings support the convergent validity of the DMM Denial and Projection scales. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2010.497421. (AN: 52889088)
    Argomenti: DEFENSE mechanisms (Psychology) in children; VALUES; MULTIDIMENSIONAL scaling; CHILD development; COGNITIVE development
    Database: Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection
    Differences in motives between Millennial and Generation X medical students.
    By: Borges, Nicole J.; Manuel, R. Stephen; Elam, Carol L.; Jones, Bonnie J. Medical Education. Jun2010, Vol. 44 Issue 6, p570-576. 7p. 3 Charts. Abstract: Medical Education 2010: 44: 570–576 Objectives Three domains comprise the field of human assessment: ability, motive and personality. Differences in personality and cognitive abilities between generations have been documented, but differences in motive between generations have not been explored. This study explored generational differences in medical students regarding motives using the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Methods Four hundred and twenty six students (97% response rate) at one medical school (Generation X = 229, Millennials = 197) who matriculated in 1995 & 1996 (Generation X) or in 2003 & 2004 (Millennials) wrote a story after being shown two TAT picture cards. Student stories for each TAT card were scored for different aspects of motives: Achievement, Affiliation, and Power. Results A multiple analysis of variance (p < 0.05) showed significant differences between Millennials’ and Generation X-ers’ needs for Power on both TAT cards and needs for Achievement and Affiliation on one TAT card. The main effect for gender was significant for both TAT cards regarding Achievement. No main effect for ethnicity was noted. Conclusions Differences in needs for Achievement, Affiliation and Power exist between Millennial and Generation X medical students. Generation X-ers scored higher on the motive of Power, whereas Millennials scored higher on the motives of Achievement and Affiliation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03633.x. (AN: 50712893)
    Argomenti: GENERATION X; MEDICAL students; COGNITIVE ability; MEDICAL schools; PERSONALITY tests; GENERATION Y; THEMATIC Apperception Test
    Defense and Object Relational Maturity on Thematic Apperception Test Scales Indicate Levels of Personality Organization.
    By: HIBBARD, STEPHEN; PORCERELLI, JOHN; KAMOO, RAY; SCHWARTZ, MARK; ABELL, STEVEN. Journal of Personality Assessment. May/Jun2010, Vol. 92 Issue 3, p241-253. 13p. 10 Charts. Abstract: Psychoanalytic theories describe defense mechanisms and object relations as psychological structures that have functions vital to personality regulation. In theory, these structures develop in stages and emerge as a coordinated, stable system in early adulthood. However, different levels of maturity of systemic function predominate in various individuals so that people exhibit levels of personality organization (LPO; Kernberg, 1975) differing in degree of maturity. Moreover, the various LPO of adults parallel various developmental stages of maturity of these structures in childhood and predispose to varying psychopathologies. We call this the parallelism hypothesis: Adult LPO parallels the stages of childhood development of these structures. In 2 studies (Study 1, students, n = 301; Study 2, diagnosed and presumed normal people, n = 155), we compared indicators of LPO with relative maturity of defenses and object relations using Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) scales (Cramer, 1991; Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1989). We compared scores to other indicators of participants' LPO. The parallelism hypothesis was largely supported in both studies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] DOI: 10.1080/00223891003670190. (AN: 49261344)
    Argomenti: PSYCHOANALYSIS; PSYCHIATRIC treatment; PERSONALITY tests; PATHOLOGICAL psychology; PSYCHOLOGY -- Research
    Database: Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection
    Enhancing adolescents' responses to projection plates through a dynamic assessment technique of questioning.
    By: Matthews, Lizette; Bouwer, Cecilia. South African Journal of Psychology. Jun2009, Vol. 39 Issue 2, p231-241. 11p. Abstract: The value of projected storying in assessment is widely recognised, perhaps nowhere more than when working with children and adolescents. Yet the technique has its pitfalls, including the way the stories produced may be influenced by digressing from standard instructions, using different methods of interpretation, and administering the instrument cross-culturally. Psychologists presenting projection plates to adolescent clients in South Africa frequently obtain little more than one-liners from standard procedures, raising doubts about viability and reliability of the technique. Questioning needs to be enhanced without compromising the projective value of responses. In this research we aimed to determine the effects of a dynamic assessment (DA) technique of questioning when using projection plates with adolescents in cross-cultural situations. Applying the test-mediate-retest principle of DA, the assessor explained to participants the relevance of her (strictly non-directive) verbal and non-verbal responses to their storying, as encouragement to elaborate on their responses. A multiple case-study was undertaken with three participants. Instrumentation consisted of two TAT plates and four non-standard plates, self-selected to accommodate possible cultural differences. Data-analysis and interpretation took two forms, projection analysis (using the Bellak TAT Analysis Blank and Haworth's analysis of defences) and structural analysis (with categories such as word-count, formulation, number of statements, prompts, hesitations, repetitions and increasing/ deepening projection). Possible cross-cultural influences were considered. Results suggest a deepening and broadening of adolescents' projections in the form of richer stories when utilising a DA technique of questioning. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] (AN: 41873463)
    Argomenti: SOUTH Africa; DYNAMIC assessment (Education); CROSS-cultural studies; CULTURE-fair tests; ADOLESCENCE; THEMATIC Apperception Test
    Database: Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection
    The Construct Validity of the Bioenergetic-Analytic Character Typology: A Multi-Method Investigation of a Humanistic Approach to Personality.
    By: Glazer, Robert; Friedman, Harris. Humanistic Psychologist. Jan2009, Vol. 37 Issue 1, p24-48. 25p. 1 Chart. Abstract: The construct validity of the five bioenergetic-analytic character types was explored through a multitrait multi-method approach. Twenty-five college students had full-body photographs and Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) data rated using this typology, and these were compared to psychometric data, including from the Adjective Check List (ACL). The photographic ratings by two bioenergetic experts correlated significantly across all 5 types, evidencing satisfactory inter-rater reliability, but ratings on the TAT and ACL did not show adequate reliability and a comparison of the photographic ratings with the psychometrics did not evidence validity for the typology. The importance of developing multi-method approaches for holistic research across different domains within humanistic psychology, such as mind (psychological self-report) and body (photographic ratings) based methods, is emphasized. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] DOI: 10.1080/08873260802394509. (AN: 36678142)
    Argomenti: BIOENERGETICS; TYPOLOGY (Psychology); PERSONALITY; MULTITRAIT multimethod techniques; PSYCHOMETRICS
    Database: Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection
    Buona vita
    Dott. Guglielmo Rottigni
    Ordine Psicologi Lombardia n° 10126

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